Fig. 1 Current and former range of ʻōmaʻo on Hawaiʻi island and location of study site for mist netting ʻōmaʻo, Japanese white-eye and red billed leothrix.
Fig. 2 The four forest fragments are where seed rain and 3 of the 5 frugivores (ʻōmaʻo, Japanese white-eye and red billed leothrix) in this study are mist netted for fecal extraction. The study site is located in the Upper Waiākea Forest Reserve along Powerline Road near mile marker 21 off Saddle Road (Daniel K. Inouye Highway). The forest are naturally fragmented by 1855 or 1880 Mauna Loa eruption. These forest fragments are known as "kīpuka".
(H1): The interior of the forest fragment harbors higher densities of fruiting plants therefore, a higher proportion of fruiting plant seeds will be dispersed closer to conspecifics in the interior.
(H2): The larger gape size of ‘alalā and ʻōmaʻo allows the consumption of a wider size range and larger abundance of fruiting plants therefore, the seed diversity and abundance of seeds in native frugivore feces will be higher than smaller exotic frugivores.
(H3): Gut passage through birds increases the germination potential of fruiting plant seeds, therefore, seeds passed through the guts of native and exotic birds will have higher germination rates and percentages than their corresponding controls.
(H4): Seeds with gut-passage through native frugivores (‘ōmaʻo, puaiohi,ʻalalā) will have higher germination rates and percentages than seeds passed through the guts of exotic frugivores (Japanese white-eyes and red billed leothrix).
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