Vision: Healthy and resilient coral reefs that support marine life and sustainable human use as a result of active watershed stewardship by businesses and the public, reducing land-based pollution in Kā‘anapali from ma‘uka to makai.
Every alternative, or management decision, has costs, benefits, and constraints that decisions may be based upon.
Cost, over 30 years, of an OSDS ugrade option varies by system combo (treatment system + disposal system).
Benefit, or the amount of N reduced from wastewater effluent, also varies by system combo.
Different upgrade systems have different site-condition constraints.
Nutrient reduction with previous conversion to sewer:
Nutrient reduction under different upgrade scenarios:
Cost efficiency of different upgrade scenarios:
Decisions may be based on many factors, and may be weighted by certain priorities.
Decision factors: lowest cost, highest benefit, best cost efficiency ("bang for buck")
Weightings: proximity to reef, visitation value.